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Does Service Provider Matter During a Pandemic? COVID-19 Cases and Deaths Among Nonprofit vs. For-Profit Assisted Living Facilities in Florida

Deborah A. Carroll & Sarah E. Larson
JHHSA, Vol. 44 No. 4, 274-301 (2022)

When COVID-19 hit the U.S. in early 2020, individuals aged 65+ were identified as a higher risk population. In Florida, Governor DeSantis issued Emergency Order 20-006 to prohibit visitation to facilities housing groups of high-risk people, including assisted living facilities (ALFs). Regardless, 672 ALFs of the 3,019 in Florida had reported at least one positive case of COVID-19 by a resident or staff member as of June 30, 2020. Prior research has highlighted the differences in service delivery between nonprofit and for-profit health care providers. This manuscript fills the void of minimal research on quality of care differences among ALFs based on ownership status. We find that nonprofit ALFs have experienced fewer positive cases of COVID-19 among their residents, but less evidence of a difference between nonprofit and for-profit ALFs in terms of resident deaths. We also find evidence that the type of nursing services matters for protecting ALF residents from COVID-19.
Key Words: COVID-19; Assisted living facilities; Nonprofits; Service delivery

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